Eye on Extremism, April 20, 2018/YouTube Ran Ads From Hundreds Of Brands On Extremist Channels

Eye on Extremism
April 20, 2018
CNN: Exclusive: YouTube Ran Ads From Hundreds Of Brands On Extremist Channels
“Ads from over 300 companies and organizations — including tech giants, major retailers, newspapers and government agencies — ran on YouTube channels promoting white nationalists, Nazis, pedophilia, conspiracy theories and North Korean propaganda, a CNN investigation has found. Companies such as Adidas (ADDDF), Amazon (AMZN), Cisco (CSCO), Facebook (FB), Hershey (HSY), Hilton (HLT), LinkedIn, Mozilla, Netflix (NFLX), Nordstrom (JWN) and Under Armour (UA) may have unknowingly helped finance some of these channels via the advertisements they paid for on Google-owned YouTube (GOOGL). US tax dollars may have gone to the channels, too. Ads from five US government agencies, such as the Department of Transportation and Centers for Disease Control, appeared on the channels. Many of the companies that responded to CNN said they were unaware their ads had been placed on these channels and were investigating how they ended up there.”
The Washington Post: Judge Blocks Transfer Of American ISIS Suspect Held 7 Months In Iraq Without Charges
“A federal judge in Washington blocked the government on Thursday from immediately transferring to another country an American citizen detained by the U.S. military in Iraq. The ruling from U.S. District Judge Tanya S. Chutkan temporarily halting the planned transfer to an unnamed country came within a half-hour of an 8 p.m. deadline, at which point the government would have been free to make the handoff. Attorneys for the man, held without charges for seven months, had challenged the move, saying the U.S. government lacks the legal authority to transfer him to a third country. The Justice Department will almost certainly appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. ‘Petitioner’s motion for a preliminary injunction is hereby granted,’ Chutkan wrote in a one-paragraph order, enjoining the Defense Department ‘from transferring petitioner from U.S. custody.’”
The New York Times: Missile Strikes Are Unlikely To Stop Syria’s Chemical Attacks, Pentagon Says
“A barrage of missiles against Syria by American, French and British forces most likely will not stop President Bashar al-Assad’s chemical weapons program, a Pentagon assessment has concluded, despite President Trump’s “Mission Accomplished!” declaration hours after last weekend’s strikes. The military intelligence report, put out less than three days after the attack, said the allied airstrikes likely set back Mr. Assad’s production of sarin gas. But it found that the Syrian president is expected to continue researching and developing chemical weapons for potential future use, according to an American intelligence analyst who has seen the document and described it to The New York Times on the condition of anonymity. “They do retain a residual capability” to produce chemical weapons, Lt. Gen. Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr., the Joint Staff director, said on Thursday of the Syrian government. He said the chemical weapons are “spread through the country.”
CNN: US Warns Of Growing African Terror Threat
“ISIS and al Qaeda represent major threats and are growing in strength in West Africa according to the commander of US special operations in Africa, Maj. Gen. Marcus Hicks. ‘The al Qaeda and ISIS inspired threats in Lake Chad Basin and here in the Sahel are very real and continue to grow in strength,’ Hicks told CNN, referring to two regions in western Africa. Hicks was speaking via phone from Niger where he was attending Flintlock 18, a major military exercise involving 1,900 elite special operations and counterterrorism troops from 21 African and western countries. ‘Both ISIS and al Qaeda franchises here should be taken seriously, they both have either carried out or attempted attacks on western interests in Africa, and they both have aspirations to continue attacks on western interests here, and then to attack the west beyond here,’ Hicks said.”
The New York Times: Is Russia Sponsoring Terrorism?
“Despite the imposition of unprecedented sanctions against Russia by the Trump administration and Congress over the past year, President Vladimir Putin only seems more intent on causing grievous harm to international peace and stability. Alongside increased financial sanctions against Mr. Putin and his cronies, there is another arrow in the American quiver that would add diplomatic pressure against Russia: The State Department should consider adding the country to its list of state sponsors of terrorism, alongside its close allies Iran and Syria. The moral case for such a designation is sound. Russia has invaded its neighbors Georgia and Ukraine, it supports the murderous regime of Bashar al-Assad and our enemies in Afghanistan, and it is engaged in active information warfare against Western democracies, including meddling in the 2016 United States elections. This week, the Organization for Prevention of Chemical Weapons announced that the Kremlin had crossed yet another previously unimaginable line, when it confirmed findings by the British government that a Russian military-grade nerve agent, which British authorities identified as Novichok, was used to poison a former Russian intelligence agent, Sergei Skripal, and his daughter in the English city of Salisbury. The attack also resulted in the hospitalization of British law enforcement officials who responded to the scene, as well as bystanders. Russia has denied the charges, but the evidence is overwhelming. So is the attack’s significance: Russia is now officially responsible for a chemical weapons attack against a NATO member state on its own soil — a brazen violation of sovereignty of our closest ally. It requires a serious American response.”
United States
The Wall Street Journal: Macron, Merkel Set To Visit Trump With Iran Deal Hanging In The Balance
“French President Emmanuel Macron and German Chancellor Angela Merkel will visit the White House next week, hoping to persuade President Donald Trump against pulling the U.S. out of the Iranian nuclear agreement at his self-imposed May 12 deadline. The French and German leaders support the 2015 nuclear accord and want the U.S. to remain a part of it. But Mr. Trump has vowed to withdraw unless European allies agree to address three main administration concerns: expiring limits on Iran’s nuclear program, Tehran’s ballistic-missile program and the scope of international nuclear inspections. Mr. Trump’s meetings with Mr. Macron on Tuesday and Ms. Merkel on Friday are among a series of pivotal events in the weeks before May 12. U.S. and European negotiating teams, which have worked toward a possible agreement on how to address Trump administration concerns, held meetings in Washington this month, after similar sessions since January in London, Paris and Berlin.”
CNN: Judge Blocks Trump Administration From Transferring American ISIS Suspect
“A federal judge blocked the Trump administration Thursday from transferring to another country an American citizen who has been accused of fighting for ISIS and who has been held by US forces in Iraq for months. The order, issued by Judge Tanya S. Chutkan, says the Department of Defense is ‘hereby enjoined from transferring petitioner from US custody.’ US government lawyers had entered a filing Tuesday, saying the government planned to transfer the detainee, identified in court documents only as John Doe, to the control of a foreign country, the name of which had been redacted. The American Civil Liberties Union, which represents the detained US citizen, opposed the transfer and requested that Chutkan block it. The ACLU praised the judge’s decision in a statement Thursday, saying the detainee’s transfer would have denied ‘him the opportunity to win his freedom from a US court.’ ‘The ruling is a victory for the rule of law,’ ACLU attorney Jonathan Hafetz said.”
WTOP: Judge Questions Terror Convictions After High Court Ruling
“A federal judge is weighing whether to toss out some counts of conviction in four terrorism cases after a Supreme Court ruling struck down a similarly worded law this week. The Supreme Court on Tuesday struck down a law allowing deportation of some immigrants who commit crimes because the law was unconstitutionally vague about what crimes would prompt deportation; the four terrorism defendants argue they were convicted under a law that was similarly vague about describing a ‘crime of violence.’ On Thursday, U.S. District Judge Leonie Brinkema in Alexandria issued orders demanding the government show cause why she shouldn’t vacate the convictions obtained more than a decade ago against what prosecutors called a ‘Virginia jihad network,’ which used paintball games in the woods near Fredericksburg as a means of training for holy war. Several group members traveled to Pakistan after the Sept. 11 attacks with the goal of joining the Taliban in Afghanistan. At trial, several said they were persuaded to go when the group’s spiritual leader, Ali Al-Timimi, said after Sept. 11 that the world was on the verge of an apocalyptic battle between Muslims and nonbelievers.”
Syria
Al Jazeera: Will The US Confront Iran’s Forces In Syria?
“Tensions between Iran and the United States over Syria are at the highest they have been since the country’s civil war started in 2011. While the two countries have repeatedly voiced indignation about the other’s presence in Syria, they have not reached the point of a military confrontation so far. While the US has targeted fighters loyal to President Bashar al-Assad who have threatened its Kurdish allies and air bases, it has not directly attacked Iranian Revolutionary Guard officers, who command both pro-Assad militias and are embedded with Syrian military units. Similarly, while Iran has warned the US against intervening in Syria, it has not instructed the groups under its sway to target the US. In recent months, however, questions arose as to whether the US will continue its policy of non-confrontation with Iran in Syria. Last month, US President Donald Trump appointed John Bolton, a trenchant critic of Iran, as his new national security adviser.”
Reuters: Iraqi Warplanes Attack Islamic State Positions In Syria
“Iraqi warplanes attacked an Islamic State explosives factory and other positions inside Syria on Thursday, Baghdad’s military said, in a rare air assault across the border. Iraqi F-16 jets targeted the militants near the city of Hajin in coordination with the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, an Iraqi military spokesman said. Both governments have been fighting the hardline group, which declared a caliphate on both their territories in 2014 before it was forced back by an international offensive. ‘Carrying out air strikes on Daesh gangs in Syrian territories is because of the dangers posed by said gangs to Iraqi territories and is proof of the improved capabilities of our armed forces,’ the Iraqi military said in a statement. Daesh in an Arabic acronym for Islamic State. The U.S.-led coalition also fighting Islamic State said it gave the Iraqi mission intelligence support.”
The Washington Post: How American Neglect Imperils The Victory Over ISIS
“Every three or four days, Fatima Mahmoud hitchhikes 37 miles across a hilly expanse of northeastern Syria to her home town of Raqqa. She comes to visit her husband’s final resting place, beneath a large mound of concrete that once was their home. She knows he is still there because of the unmistakable odor of his corpse. Mahmoud digs through the rubble with her hands, seeking artifacts of her life with him and anything of value she can sell to pay for food and her temporary shelter elsewhere in the province. ‘My city has been liberated, but I can’t live in it,’ she said, her face collapsing into sobs.”
The Economist: Where Syria’s Despot Bashar Al-Assad Is Likely To Strike Next
“If the cruise missiles that slammed into Syria on April 14th rattled President Bashar al-Assad, he did his best not to show it. Hours after America, Britain and France struck three facilities connected to Mr Assad’s chemical-weapons programme, his office posted a video of him strolling confidently into work. Russian politicians who met him later in the day said he was in a good mood. Mr Assad may have feared a bigger response from the West. Donald Trump, America’s president, had vowed to make his regime pay a “big price” for gassing to death more than 40 people in the town of Douma on April 7th. But the missiles destroyed only a handful of buildings and probably failed to wipe out all of Mr Assad’s poisonous arsenal. Nor did they dent his ability to rout, with conventional weapons, what is left of the rebellion in Syria’s seven-year civil war. Aided by Iran and Russia, Mr Assad is winning the war. His soldiers recently captured Eastern Ghouta, a suburb of Damascus of which Douma is part, after a brutal weeks-long offensive. Hours after the chemical attack, the only rebels still standing in the area agreed to the terms of a Russian-brokered surrender. Some handed over their weapons and will join the regime’s security forces; others were bused north to Idlib province.”
Al Jazeera: Assad Forces Target ISIL In Southern Damascus
“Syrian government air strikes and artillery fire have pounded areas held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS) group in the south of Damascus, according to state media and war monitors. Government warplanes targeted ‘the dens of terrorists from al-Nusra Front and Daesh in Hajar al-Aswad,’ a southern district of Damascus, state news agency SANA said on Thursday, referring to Syria’s former al-Qaeda affiliate and using an Arabic acronym for ISIL. Activists confirmed that President Bashar al-Assad’s forces had effectively started a military operation against ISIL in the south of Damascus. The government attacks and shelling targeted the Palestinian camp of Yarmouk, as well as the neighbouring districts of Hajar al-Aswad and Tadamun.”
Business Insider: A New Terrorist Group Is Popping Up In Syria And Capitalizing On ISIS’ Defeat
“With up to 90% of its territory lost, ISIS appears effectively defeated as a conventional foe. But while the black flag of ISIS is being lowered, another may soon take its place — the white flag of Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham. A new report in the Wall Street Journal details HTS’ rise as it consolidates power in northwest Syria. Led by a former Al-Qaeda militant, HTS is mostly based in Syria’s Idlib Governorate and has taken advantage of the US-led coalition’s focus on ISIS in the East, as well as the Syrian government and Russia’s focus on other parts of the country. HTS came into existence roughly a year ago, when Jabhat Fath al Sham, previously known as the Al Nusrah Front and Al-Qaeda’s branch in Syria until its re-branding in July of 2016, announced a merger with four other islamist groups operating in Syria. Combined with the other groups, HTS — or the Assembly for Liberation of the Levant — was created. The reason for its existence, according to its propaganda, is ‘to unite our banners and to preserve the fruits and the jihad’ of the revolution against Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad, so that it can ‘be the seed of unifying the capacities and strength of this revolution.’”
Iran
The Guardian: Video Of Iran ‘Morality Police’ Wrestling With Woman Sparks Outrage
“Shocking video footage of a young woman being wrestled to the floor by Iranian “morality police” because her hijab was loose has sparked outrage after it was posted online. The footage shows members of the special taskforce tackling the woman, believed to be in her mid-20s, in Tehran. Under Iranian law, it is compulsory for women to cover themselves from head to toe in public, but many defy the boundaries by wearing loose hijab that shows their hair. The video shows two young friends, one wearing a maghnaeh (similar to a nun’s cowl) and the other wearing a loose headscarf that reveals part of her hair. The latter is verbally cautioned, before a female police officer slaps her in the face and wrestles her to the floor. The young woman is heard screaming repeatedly: “Let me go, let me go.”
Iraq
Iraqi News: Three Islamic State Members Killed In Confrontations Against Troops, Southwest Of Kirkuk
“Three Islamic State members were killed in confrontations with security troops, southwest of Kirkuk, a security source from the province said on Thursday. Speaking to AlSumaria News, the source said, ‘armed confrontations occurred between the Federal Police and al-Hashd al-Shaabi (Popular Mobilization Forces) against Islamic State members in al-Khadra village in al-Zab town, southwest of Kirkuk.’ The clashes, according to the source, who preferred anonymity, added that ‘three militants have been killed so far as the confrontations are still ongoing.’ Security troops carry out operations, every now and then, in search for the dormant cells of IS. Thousands of IS militants as well as Iraqi civilians were killed since the government campaign, backed by paramilitary troops and the coalition, was launched in October 2016 to fight the militant group. In December, Abadi announced full liberation of Iraqi lands, declaring end of war against IS members. However, Islamic State continues to launch sporadic attacks across Iraq against troops. Security reports indicate that the militant group still poses threat against stability in the country.”
Afghanistan
The Guardian: ‘It’s Torturing Us’: Refugee Family Split Between Sydney And Nauru Desperate To Reunite
“‘At the beginning they said we’ll transfer you to Darwin and if your treatment takes longer, we’ll bring all your children,’ says Nasreen. ‘But they lied, and when I realised they lied I was crying and screaming.’ Nasreen sits in a beige recliner at the edge of her tidy kitchen in Sydney. Her small body is covered with a blanket, her face framed with a scarf. She cries, covering her face with her hands, as she recalls fleeing Afghanistan with her children to follow her husband to Australia, ending up in Nauru and then Sydney – separated from a son and a daughter. ‘One night some men came to my home – I assumed they were Taliban – and they hit me in my back. I don’t remember if it was a stick or a gun butt,’ she says through a translator. ‘They tried to steal [my son] Daryoush and I tried to save him and they hit my back. I was screaming.’ They crossed the border to Pakistan, then into Indonesia, before finding someone to take them by boat to Australia in 2013. But Nasreen was afraid of the water.”
Voice Of America: Taliban Block Cellphone Service In S. Afghanistan
“Taliban insurgents recently forcibly shut down the services of private telecommunications companies in areas under their control in Afghanistan’s southern Helmand province. Residents said the action cut off their mobile phone service for the past five days. Local communications officials said the Taliban ‘believe the Afghan government is utilizing private communication systems for military and intelligence operations,’ Omidullah Zaheer, communications director of Helmand province, told VOA. ‘In a note to all communication companies, Taliban warned them to stop their operations,’ Zaheer added. The insurgents reportedly forcibly shut down at least 120 communications towers, perhaps in a bid to disrupt Afghan military operations in the province. Afghan defense officials, however, said the disruption would not affect their communications because they have their own communications system.”
Pakistan
The Washington Post: In Pakistan, A Young Pashtun Man Was Killed By Police. Another Has Risen To Lead A Movement.
“The slight, sad-faced man of 26, in a plain white tunic and a red embroidered cap, might seem miscast as the emerging leader of millions of ethnic Pashtuns and the voice of pent-up grievances that this struggling tribal minority has accumulated in the years since the Cold War arrived in next-door Afghanistan a generation ago. But when Manzoor Pashteen took the stage at a recent rally in this Pashtun heartland city, the self-effacing veterinarian was transformed into an impassioned firebrand. He demanded that Pakistan’s security forces produce hundreds of missing detainees and stop harassing residents of his native Pashtun tribal belt, where conflicts with Taliban militants have been raging for years. Thousands of supporters cheered and chanted songs including ‘What is this freedom?,’ a popular protest ballad about wartime repression. The emotional crowd included students and professionals drawn by social media, and burqa-covered tribal women carrying posters of husbands or brothers who were seized in security raids and never seen again.”
Yemen
Reuters: Nephew Of Former Yemeni President Leads Clashes Against Houthi Forces
“Forces loyal to former Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh battled their former Houthi allies on Thursday over control of a key outpost, marking the first such battle between the two sides since the veteran leader was killed last year. The fighting underlined the growing complexity of the conflict that has already killed more than 10,000 people and displaced more than 3 million in the impoverished country. Sources in the pro-Saleh forces there said there were casualties on both sides in the fighting. The forces included a new unit set up by Saleh’s nephew, Brigadier-General Tareq Mohammed Saleh. He had led a brigade of a Yemeni army unit before his uncle was forced to step down in 2012 following mass protests against his rule. The fighting followed a major switch in allegiances in the war. Saleh initially sided with the Iranian-allied Houthis who swept across most of northern Yemen in a series of military offensives that began in 2014.”
Saudi Arabia
Arab News: Saudi Arabia’s Air Defense Intercepts Houthi Ballistic Missile Fired Towards Jazan
“Saudi air defense forces managed to intercept a ballistic missile fired by Houthi militias from Yemen headed in the direction of Saudi Arabia’s border province of Jazan on Friday. Earlier this week, Saudi air defenses shot down a previous ballistic missile attack by the Houthis. Colonel Turki Al-Maliki, the coalition’s spokesman, said the missile was monitored by the Saudi Air Force to have been launched from Yemen’s Amran province at 10:16 p.m. Monday toward populated areas in the southern Saudi province of Najran. The missile was intercepted before it could hit its target, Al-Maliki said. The incident happened hours after the coalition warned of a “painful” response if the Houthis mounted new attacks on Saudi Arabia using what it said were Iran-supplied drones.”
Middle East Monitor: Houthis Kill 5 Saudi Soldiers
“Five Saudi soldiers were killed yesterday in clashes with the Houthi along the Kingdom’s southern border with Yemen, local media reported. Saudi fighter jets launched raids on groups of Houthis in areas near the Jazan border in response to the killings. The Houthis had announced that their “operation” had targeted Saudi soldiers in Najran, which resulted in the injury and death of dozens of members of the Saudi army. The head of the group’s Revolutionary Committee, Muhammad Ali al-Houthi, had told Al Jazeera earlier that his group “will face the escalation of attacks by Saudi Arabia and the UAE with further escalations”, asserting that “the Houthis have weapons to deter aggression against the Yemeni people.”
Nigeria
Vanguard: Troops Kill Boko Haram Terrorist, Avert Deadly IED Attack
“Authorities of Operation Lafiya Dole have said that troops in a blocking operation to canalize and deny Boko Haram terrorists freedom of action and escape from ongoing onslaught in the Sambisa region have killed one Boko Haram insurgent at Ngala Bridge at Gamboru Ngala area of Borno State. A statement by Col Onyeama Nwachukwu, Deputy Director, Army Public Relations said, “The troops on Thursday killed the terrorist and wounded several others at about 6.30pm in an encounter with elements of the terrorists group who were fleeing in two gun trucks through Gamboru Ngala road.”
Russia
NPR: Russia Works To Rescue The Lost Children Of ISIS Fighters
“Thousands of Russian Muslim men joined the Islamic State and brought their families with them to Iraq and Syria. But now that ISIS has lost most of its territory – and with many of those Russian fighters now dead – the Russian government is desperately searching for their lost wives and children. Hundreds if not thousands of children born or brought to the region by their families are missing or being held prisoner along with their mothers. Those who have been rescued face challenges reintegrating into Russian life, officials say. It’s almost as if these Russian women and children in the Middle East have fallen into a black hole, says Tim Whewell of the BBC. He says the only names known were discovered in December when voice messages were smuggled out of an Iraqi prison. ‘Iraq, for example, has provided no lists of any kind either of the dead people from IS families, or simply of the missing or of the ones that are in jail,’ he tells Here & Now’s Lisa Mullins. ‘The one thing we do know is that 1,400 foreign women and children, foreign ISIS women and children, were said to be in a jail in Iraq.’”
North Korea
Fox News: CEP Spokesperson Tara Maller Discusses The Strategy And Preparations For A Possible Meeting Between North Korean Leader Kim Jong-Un And President Trump
The New York Times: Sanctions Are Hurting North Korea. Can They Make Kim Give In?
“On a dark February night, the trucks unloaded their contraband near Hyesan, a North Korean town across a narrow river from China. As border guards looked the other way, workers used carts to pull the cargo of metal ore — tungsten, lead, zinc, copper and gold concentrates, all banned from export under United Nations sanctions — across the frozen river. By sunrise, all that was left were tire tracks and footprints across the river’s frozen surface. A North Korean witness told an acquaintance living in South Korea that ore, as well as other materials, was being smuggled into China at the crossing almost every night. He said smugglers also headed the other way, moving sugar, flour and 50-kilogram sacks of fertilizers into North Korea. There is growing evidence that tough new sanctions imposed on North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons and missile programs have begun to bite, and bite hard. Factories have closed because of a lack of raw materials, fishermen have deserted their boats and military units are resorting to charcoal-engine vehicles and even ox-driven carts for transport.”
Technology
The Interpreter: Drones Level The Battlefield For Extremists
“In early 2016, I contributed to an Armament Research Services (ARES) report on the use of commercially available drones by non-state actors in contemporary conflicts, including in Syria, Iraq, and Ukraine. We predicted that the use of commercial drones, which up until that point had been used for reconnaissance purposes predominantly, would soon be regularly weaponised. As recent events in Syria have shown, weaponised commercial drones are now a regular feature in a range of conflicts, notably involving non-state actors. Drone use by non-state actors in the Middle East is not a new phenomenon. Libyan rebels spent more than US$100,000 buying a drone in 2011 to aid their fight against forces loyal to Gaddafi. Hezbollah has been operating Iranian-built drones against Israel for years, but these have been predominantly military-grade models and thus fairly sophisticated. Things started to change in Syria and Iraq in 2014 when organisations such as ISIS began regularly using relatively cheap commercial drones. Since then there have been hundreds of reported uses of drones by ISIS and other armed non-state actors in Iraq and Syria.”
The New York Times: Audit Approved Of Facebook Policies, Even After Cambridge Analytica Leak
“An auditing firm responsible for monitoring Facebook for federal regulators told them last year that the company had sufficient privacy protections in place, even after the social media giant lost control of a huge trove of user data that was improperly obtained by the political consulting firm Cambridge Analytica. The assertion, by PwC, came in a report submitted to the Federal Trade Commission in early 2017. The report, a redacted copy of which is available on the commission’s website, is one of several periodic reviews of Facebook’s compliance with a 2011 federal consent decree, which required Facebook to take wide-ranging steps to prevent the abuse of users’ information and to inform them how it was being shared with other companies. The accounting firm, formerly known as PricewaterhouseCoopers, effectively gave Facebook a clean bill of health. “Facebook’s privacy controls were operating with sufficient effectiveness to provide reasonable assurance to protect the privacy” of users, said the assessment, which stretched from February 2015 to February 2017.”
CNBC: Facebook Users’ Data Exposed To Web Trackers When Using Its Login Feature For Other Sites: Report
“If you’ve logged into a website or app using the “login with Facebook” feature, your data could have been exposed to third-party trackers. Web trackers are exploiting websites’ access to Facebook user data, according to a security research report by Steven Englehardt and two other researchers at Freedom to Tinker, a blog hosted by Princeton University’s Center for Information Technology Policy. The study showed that when a user logs into a website using Facebook’s login application programming interface (API) — which lets people sign into an external app or website without having to create an account — third party JavaScript trackers embedded on that site are then able to collect data on the user’s public profile and email address. JavaScript is the programming language used for web pages. The research did not explain how these trackers used the data collected from Facebook users but said that some of their parent companies collect data to help publishers monetize their users.”

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